Okay @fitat50 you are in luck. I just took my re-certification and as luck would have it, I had to design a program for a few 16 year old women and man. Here is the total break down that I made for Kyle, Mark, and Saline, and you feel free to use this with your son. This would be the exact thing that I would put him on and it will all but ensure success. I know its long, but the essays that they require you to do for true up at the NASM centers are designed to ensure that a certified trainer knows all aspects of proper training. Anyway, here you go buddy.
Proper stretching and improving flexibility is a tremendous advantage to getting ahead in sports training. To understand this fully, it’s important to understand how the muscles, bones, joints, and internal structure works. Together, muscles and bones comprise what is called the musculoskeletal system of the body. The bones provide posture and structural support for the body and the muscles provide the body with the ability to move (by contracting, and thus generating tension). The musculoskeletal system also provides protection for the body’s internal organs. In order to serve their function, bones must be joined together by something. The point where bones connect to one another is called a joint, and this connection is made mostly by ligaments (along with the help of muscles). Muscles are attached to the bone by tendons. Bones, tendons, and ligaments do not possess the ability (as muscles do) to make your body move. Muscles are very unique in this respect. Muscles vary in shape and in size, and serve many different purposes. Most large muscles, like the hamstrings and quadriceps, control motion. Other muscles, like the heart, and the muscles of the inner ear, perform other functions. At the microscopic level however, all muscles share the same basic structure.
Before and after any type of physical training, stretching and flexibility exercises should be performed for a minimum of 5-7 minutes before aerobic exercise. The purpose of warm-ups includes: keeping muscles supple, increasing range of motion of joints, enhancing flexibility, improving coordination, increasing body temperature and heart rate, increasing blood flow to muscles and preventing injuries. You should stretch to the point of “MILD TENSION”. If you overstretch you will also cause damage. Back off if the stretch feels painful. Although you may use stretching as a warm-up, such a practice is often counterproductive. Warming up before stretching is important in two regards. First, it elevates core body temperature. Second, muscles are subject to thixotropy, which is a time-dependent shear thinning property. Certain gels or fluids that are thick (viscous) under static conditions will flow (become thin, less viscous) over time when shaken, agitated, or otherwise stressed (time dependent viscosity).
The purpose of warm-ups includes: keeping muscles supple, increasing range of motion of joints, enhancing flexibility, improving coordination, increasing body temperature and heart rate, increasing blood flow to muscles and preventing injuries. Studies about the benefits of stretching show that stretching helps. As a whole, stretching benefits provide:
• Improving athletic performance in some activities
• Decreasing the risk of activity-based injuries
• Increased muscle temperature associated with enhanced dissociation of oxygen from red blood cells
• Improved metabolic adjustment to heavy work
• Increased velocity of nerve conduction
• Greater numbers of capillaries opened in the muscles
• Greater strength/power output
Stretching can help improve flexibility, and, consequently, range of motion in your joints. Better flexibility may improve your performance in physical activities or decrease your risk of injuries by helping your joints move through their full range of motion and enabling your muscles to work most effectively. Stretching also increases blood flow to the muscle. And you may come to enjoy the ritual of stretching before or after hitting the trail, ballet floor or soccer field.
There are many major and minor movements that make up the 6 primary movements. Each of these distinct movements that take place when performing any physical activity occurs at the joints between the body segments. Knowing how and when these joints and segments interact, as well as what role they play in fitness can greatly improve the success rate of the workouts, my client’s goals, and the effectiveness as educators to my clients.
The 6 primary fundamental movements are flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, rotation, and circumduction. A great deal of these fundamental’s play an intricate part of both primary and antagonist muscles since each has an action directly opposite to that of the agonist. When an agonist undergoes a concentric contraction, an antagonist undergoes an eccentric contraction to guide the movement and to stabilize the joint. Knowing this principle’s and how it relates to Flexion and Extension can be the difference of doing a good job training someone or being GREAT at training my clients. Here is a good example, since flexion is a decrease in the angle between two body segments; flexion occurs at the shoulder, elbow, hip, and knee joints.
Now that the major movements are understood, its time to start looking at a plan of action. When designing a program for short- and long-term weight training, it’s important to consider the training models related to how muscles respond to stress and fatigue. The general adaptation syndrome (GAS) principle is a model of training that describes the body’s short-term and long-term reactions to stress. Periodization is the practice of splitting a program into distinct time periods, with each period building on the former periods’ progress. Some work best for strength, others for size. Some for cuts, some for speed. Some for sports, others for fitness. Some for hard gainers, some for beginners. There are at least seven overlapping principles upon which all systems must rely on if optimum effectiveness in training outcomes is to be expected. Most of the training systems adhere only in part to The Seven “Granddaddy” Laws. For success in any programs one should be periodized, adhering to these seven granddaddy laws of training which are:
(1) principle of individual differences
(2) overcompensation principle
(3) overload principle
(4) SAID principle
(5) use/disuse principle(
(6) GAS principle
(7) The principle of specificity.
Within these principles are variables, such as intensity, volume, duration, frequency, balance, and recovery, which must be manipulated in order for progression to occur. Once goals have been identified through the ISSA drawing-in phase, selecting appropriate exercises for my clients intended goals is the next step.
As mentioned, Periodization is how one’s training is broken down into discreet time periods called “macrocycles, mesocycles, and microcycles.” Also known as “periodized training”.
The three parts of a periodized plan are the macrocycle (the entire program, usually a training year), mesocycle (3-6 week periods within the macrocycle), and microcycle (the actual training week within the mesocycle).
A periodization model typically begins by laying a fitness foundation first. The foundation involves basic exercises and movements to strengthen tendons and ligaments and preparing the body for the training stress ahead while reversing the effects of disuse with my beginning clients. This phase usually employs a relatively higher number of reps (10-15) and moderate/high volume (2-4 sets, 8-12 exercises). This is usually referred to as an “anatomical adaptation” phase and lasts anywhere from 1-12 weeks, depending on the beginning fitness level of the client. The higher the beginning fitness level, the shorter the AA phase will be. A workout utilizing one exercise per body part in a circuit training fashion (using both free weights and machines) is a great example of such a program. This is the type of system that I would recommend for someone who is 35 and wanting to tone as in the example question.
Once the foundation has been laid, it is time to increase the training stress. At this point the program should be employing some sort of training split (literally splitting muscle groups up and training them on different days). Whatever split I choose for my client has to be tailored to their schedule. While I may be convinced that training biceps once every three days is best for maximum results, if it does not fit into my client’s schedule it does not matter.
The next intensity level is comparable to a bodybuilder’s routine. During this phase there will be an increase in volume and intensity, but that will be offset by the use of a training split which allows for the longer recovery periods for each body part. This type of program generally has 4-8 sets in a workout per large muscle group and 1-3 sets for smaller muscle groups.
The third level of intensity is the highest. This phase will concentrate on absolute strength levels, often using 5 reps or less per set. This type of program is typified by using 5-10 sets for larger muscle groups and 2-4 sets for smaller muscle groups. Longer rest periods of 2-5 minutes are also used to ensure that you have regenerated enough ATP to continue with the same workload. This type of training improves absolute strength by increasing the amount of muscle fibers being recruited to lift the weight, the coordination of the different muscle groups being used, and decreases how much the antagonistic (opposite) muscle groups contract and interfere with the movement. Training in this manner will allow for large increases in strength without large increases in muscle mass, allowing for a trainee to achieve both better absolute and relative strength. Relative strength is how much weight can be lifted for an exercise in relation to a person’s bodyweight.
Now that we have had our formal sit down and established both short term and long term goals, our next phase will be to create goals. It will be extremely important here to add another dimension to goal-setting. Together, we will be distinguishing between outcome goals and behavior goals, a distinction that is essential to success. An outcome goal is the main outcome or objective that one hopes to accomplish. With that being said, we will set our goals appropriately. Here it is important that we not only set realistic goals for Clark, but that we also set a specific target date in which we want to have it accomplished. “I want to lose 30 pounds this year” is not specific enough. We will use something like, “By June 30, I am going put on 30 pounds of lean muscle.” I will be sure to pull out my training journal and keep marking off the days we work out, write down what she will eat, and keep visualizing her goal. I find that keeping a journal from the first meeting all the way through the 12th week is invaluable. It’s important that we track progress so that we keep going. A training journal is a good way to mark off the exercises as you do them. We both can look back at them later and see what she has accomplished. This will help motivate her on days that she doesn’t feel like working out. Likewise, a food journal is equally as helpful for tracking her diet which I have outlined below for reference and suggestions.
Before we begin, I would like to take several approaches to identify each physical assessment and that should at least include the parameters of muscular strength and endurance, flexibility, and cardiovascular endurance. I will use the assessments to provide a baseline from which to evaluate Clark progress and this will allow both of us to note the areas that need improvement. From that information, develop a personalized program based on what is best for Clark. Assessments also give me an opportunity to discuss what the results mean with Clark. This is a great time for me to reiterate the importance of physical fitness and how improvements in test scores reflect on improvements in health. I will begin my assessments with the following:
12-Minute Run-Walk Test
12” bench step (with at least a 24” x 16” stepping area)
Clock with a sweep hand (seconds) or a stopwatch
IRM bench Press
IRM Seated Leg Press
Based on the results that come back from these tests that will yield what type of loads, starting weight, and intensity that we will be using. I have selected a 12 week plan that is based upon Periodization as I feel that this is the best course of action with the right diversity needed to get Selina to her goal. Periodization is one of the most important parts of a fitness programs ultimate success, and the formula that I will be using for the next 12 weeks. I will be using a phase approach that will include circuit training, cardiovascular training, and weight training. I will be using and demonstrating a multi-phase system as well as a periodization methodology. The 3 parts of a periodized plan I will use are the macrocycle (the entire program), mesocycle (3-6 week periods within the macrocycle), and microcycle (the actual training week within the mesocycle). The periodization model will start with laying a fitness foundation. The foundation will involve basic exercises and movements to strengthen tendons and ligaments and preparing her body for the training stress ahead while reversing the effects of disuse in. This phase I will employ will have a relatively higher number of reps (10-15) and moderate/high volume 2-4 sets, 8-12 exercises, as well as use heavier weight with low reps once a week so that we can begin building solid and lean mass. This will be the first step and used as an anatomical adaptation phase. My plan is to have this last anywhere from 1-2 weeks. The purpose of Phase 1, the first 4 weeks of the program, is to develop a stable core region along with strength and mobility in the hips. We will do so by completing a series of exercises and a cardio session outlined below on my 12 week schedule. This program I have created will begin with cardio sessions of walking, but the goal is to gradually increase the intensity and work rate to successfully complete a 30-minute jog by the end of the 3-month period. The progression of the core training exercises match the progression of the cardiovascular exercise to help make the jogging comfortable and manageable for the listed timed durations. Cardio will be limited in scope and not used nearly as much as we did with Selina. We will use the cardio training for speed, reaction times, endurance, and perform cardio in vastly different forms than with Selina.
I will be also using foundation training as Kyle is new to fitness, but does has some training that he has done in the past. My purpose of using foundational training is to strengthen weaknesses and develop a foundation of strength in all muscles, tendons, ligaments and health and fitness. Since he is a beginning trainee we will use high repetitions (15 repetitions or more at 55% to 65% of 1RM) as that will be best for muscular endurance and is not conducive to gaining muscular mass. The lighter weights used in high-repetition work are not enough to innervate the higher-threshold motor units in a muscle. This will increase in week two and all weeks following. We will be using several different types of splits on heavy training days for chest and legs. I will have him perform super sets, drop sets, as well as pyramids to really penetrate deep into the muscle fibers to stimulate growth. The key is that only muscle fibers activated by the resistance training will respond to increased levels of anabolic hormones. There is another reason that light weight and high repetitions are not optimal for stimulating muscular hypertrophy. The majority of the work done in high-repetition sets is accomplished by slow-twitch type I muscle fibers. Type I muscle fibers have a limited ability to hypertrophy. Type IIB fibers are activated when more force is required, which allows for the greatest potential for growth. Heavier weights accomplish more complete activation of the type IIB muscle fibers. Loads that I will use will variable from week to next and the number of exercises will too. My plan is to use between 8 to 12 exercises and use high reps at first and increase week over week unless it’s a heavy training day, low load with 30 to 75 seconds at time per station. Frequency will be 4 times a week. Using a resistance of 85% to 95% of 1RM will also increase testosterone levels more than other resistance loads. Many aspiring novices will attempt to lift near 1RM loads for one or two repetitions in the hopes of gaining muscle size
Just like with Selina and any other person training, to get our program started, we will begin each workout with a proper warm up. Before and after any type of physical training, stretching and flexibility exercises should be performed for a minimum of 5-7 minutes before aerobic exercise. The purpose of warm-ups includes: keeping muscles supple, increasing range of motion of joints, enhancing flexibility, improving coordination, increasing body temperature and heart rate, increasing blood flow to muscles and preventing injuries. The purpose of warm-ups includes: keeping muscles supple, increasing range of motion of joints, enhancing flexibility, improving coordination, increasing body temperature and heart rate, increasing blood flow to muscles and preventing injuries. Studies about the benefits of stretching show that stretching helps.
We will begin our routine with a 10 minute warm up and the spits that we have for each day will be broken out by the following:
Safety Squat 15 reps 3 sets moving up to 10 reps, heavier weight, 3 sets. Then 8 reps, heavier weight in week 4 with 3 sets.
Lying leg curl 15 reps 2 sets Moving up to 10 reps, heavier weight, 3 sets. Then 8 reps, heavier weight in week 4 with 3 sets.
Forward Lunge using alternating leg per rep 15 reps 2 sets Moving up to 10 reps, heavier weight, 3 sets. Then 8 reps, heavier weight in week 4 with 3 sets.
Seated calf raise 15 reps 2 sets Moving up to 10 reps, heavier weight, 3 sets. Then 8 reps, heavier weight in week 4 with 3 sets.
Side lunge 15 reps 2 sets Moving up to 10 reps, heavier weight, 3 sets. Then 8 reps, heavier weight in week 4 with 3 sets.
Step ups 15 reps 2 sets Moving up to 10 reps, heavier weight, 3 sets. Then 8 reps, heavier weight in week 4 with 3 sets.
Seated leg curl 15 reps 2 sets Moving up to 10 reps, heavier weight, 3 sets. Then 8 reps, heavier weight in week 4 with 3 sets.
Standing calf raise 15 reps 2 sets Moving up to 10 reps, heavier weight, 3 sets. Then 8 reps, heavier weight in week 4 with 3 sets.
Shoulders, back, Delt
Shrugs 15 reps 2 sets… Moving up to 10 reps, heavier weight, 3 sets. Then 8 reps, heavier weight in week 4 with 3 sets.
Back extensions 15 reps 2 sets Moving up to 10 reps, heavier weight, 3 sets. Then 8 reps, heavier weight in week 4 with 3 sets.
Seated cable row 15 reps 2 sets Moving up to 10 reps, heavier weight, 3 sets. Then 8 reps, heavier weight in week 4 with 3 sets.
Shoulder press 15 reps 2 sets Moving up to 10 reps, heavier weight, 3 sets. Then 8 reps, heavier weight in week 4 with 3 sets.
Assisted lateral raise 15 reps 2 sets Moving up to 10 reps, heavier weight, 3 sets. Then 8 reps, heavier weight in week 4 with 3 sets.
Reverse pec dec 15 reps 2 sets Moving up to 10 reps, heavier weight, 3 sets. Then 8 reps, heavier weight in week 4 with 3 sets.
Chest and Triceps Biceps
Bench Press 15 reps 3 sets… Moving up to 10 reps, heavier weight, 3 sets. Then 8 reps, heavier weight in week 4 with 3 sets.
Incline Bench Press 15 reps week 1 3 sets Moving up to 10 reps, heavier weight, 3 sets. Then 8 reps, heavier weight in week 4 with 3 sets.
Triceps pull down 15 reps 2 sets Moving up to 10 reps, heavier weight, 3 sets. Then 8 reps, heavier weight in week 4 with 3 sets.
Incline dumbbell bench press 15 reps 2 sets Moving up to 10 reps, heavier weight, 3 sets. Then 8 reps, heavier weight in week 4 with 3 sets.
Incline triceps extensions 15 reps 2 sets Moving up to 10 reps, heavier weight, 3 sets. Then 8 reps, heavier weight in week 4 with 3 sets.
Standing hammer curls 15 reps 2 sets Moving up to 10 reps, heavier weight, 3 sets. Then 8 reps, heavier weight in week 4 with 3 sets.
Flat bench dumbbell press 15 reps 2 sets Moving up to 10 reps, heavier weight, 3 sets. Then 8 reps, heavier weight in week 4 with 3 sets.
Cable flies 15 reps 2 sets Moving up to 10 reps, heavier weight, 3 sets. Then 8 reps, heavier weight in week 4 with 3 sets.
AlterNet seated dumbbell curl 15 reps 2 sets
Double arm standing curl 15 reps 2 sets
Reverse crunch 15 reps 2 sets
Oblique crutch 15 reps 2 sets
Straight crunch 15 reps 2 sets
Plank 30 seconds
Abs will be done on every other workout, so it will be done several times a week. Every other work out will also end with a cardio session starting with 15 minutes and gradually working our way up to 30 minutes during the 12 week split we have together. Again, this will be phased under these guidelines:
•Warm up with about 5-10 minutes of light cardio
•Increase the intensity for 2-3 minutes so that you’re working at a Perceived Exertion (RPE)
•For 1 minute, increase intensity (speed walking, running, hill-walking, etc.) to a Level 7-8
•Recover at a lower intensity for 2-3 minutes
•Alternate high intensity with low intensity for 20 or more minutes if you’re a beginner, more if you’re intermediate/advanced.
Of course no exercise routine or fitness goal can be reached without proper nutritional planning, mapping, and discipline. A good starting point is to review your diet and make the following changes in his diet:
• Record everything you eat in a food diary. Be honest with yourself – a cheeky lie here and there won’t get you anywhere! .
• Eat smaller meals, more often. This can help boost your metabolism (the rate at which you burn food).
• Opt for low-gi carbs, such as pasta, sweet potato and wholegrain bread.
• Drink plenty of water – at least eight glasses a day to prevent dehydration.
• Learn to read food labels. Concentrate on grams of nutrients instead of percentages.
• Eat less than 30 per cent of your kilojoule intake in the form of fat. Reduce saturated fat (from sources like meat and dairy) but make sure you include good fats, such as Omega-3.
• Don’t deny yourself the occasional treat
• Be realistic! Becoming a super model doesn’t happen overnight, so it will take time, determination, discipline, and hard work.
Good nutrition helps control energy balance so people don’t eat too much or too little. Therefore, they can stay healthy while feeling great and maintaining an ideal body weight. Nutrient density that identifies the proportion of nutrients in foods, with terms such as “nutrient rich” and “micronutrient dense” referring to similar properties. Since the main goal of Clark is to play football, his diet will be much heavier. In order for the gain to come in the form of lean mass, there must be a strong stimulus for protein gain (or an up regulation of carbohydrate storage capacity). Exercise training, genetically determined growth, and pregnancy all stimulate the gain of lean mass. In addition, some nutritional supplements and many anabolic drugs also provide this stimulus. We will be reliant on food, and I am recommending that we use at least 1 to 2 grams of protein per body pound. I am recommending very high dense foods, and BCAA supplements with whey protein supplements to be used in-between meals. With that being said, portion control will be used by the following:
Your palm determines your protein portions.
Your fist determines your veggie portions.
Your cupped hand determines your carb portions.
Your thumb determines your fat portions.
2 palm of protein dense foods
2 fist of vegetables
2 cupped handful of carb dense foods
2 thumb of fat dense foods
My suggested food choices for her will be to look for the following choices at his local supermarkets:
“Certified humane raised and handled”
“Natural food certifiers”
“Organic” or “Certified Organic”
I will have him avoid, Pasta Chips & Crackers. French Fries, White Bread, Refined Cereal Sugar/Candy Flour Tortillas, Pastries/Baked Goods. I will make a recommendation for her to watch for hidden fats in packaged foods. Read the labels! We will use an easy formula to figure the percentage of fat in a labeled food: For every 100 calories, foods should contain 20 calories of fat or less, or 20% fat by calories. You can also take the listed fat calories per serving and divide by the total calories per serving. Avoid foods that are higher than 20% fat by calories.
Here are the recommended meal plans I have outlines for him.
8-6 egg whites, 1 bowl high fiber/no sugar cereal or oatmeal, 1 piece of fruit, skim milk or coffee, Whey Protein shake, 2 slices of light toast (100% whole wheat, multi grain bread), low sugar jam Lean Body Meal Replacement shake (either blended or Ready-to-Drink), fresh fruit (Remember, it should be a fist-sized amount – try an apple) Palm-sized portion of chicken, fist-sized complex carb, and veggies OR Sandwich (tuna, chicken, turkey) on 100% whole wheat bread, 1 piece of fruit Whey Protein shake OR 1 Cup low fat cottage cheese, fist-sized serving of fruit Palm-sized portion of chicken or fish, fist-sized complex carb, fist-sized (or more) veggies and salad with fat free dressing It is realistic that you will want to snack. Here are some snack ideas for when your body is craving something (but be careful not to overdo it – moderation is the key): rice cakes, fat-free cheese, fat-free yogurt, air-popped popcorn, and Lean Body shakes and protein bars
Final on week 12 will be a 1RM test will be performed as well as a GO TO FAILURE process to see how far we have progressed in each:
Lat Pull-down: 1×10 (super-slow), 1×12
Cable Shrug: 1×15
Bench Press: 1×10 (super-slow), 1×15
Close-grip Bench: 1×10, 6, 6 (drop sets)
Leg Press: 1×40
Plank: 1×2 minutes
Dumbbell Press: 1×15
Incline Curl: 3×12
Triceps Push-down: 1×12, 1×8
Hammer Curl: 1×12
Overhead Triceps Extension: 1×8
Hamstring Stretch: 5×60 seconds
Rowing: 1×25, 1×20
High Pull: 2×15
Back Extension: 1×20
Close-grip Bench: 1×12
Leg Press: 1×40
Plank: 1×2 minutes
Dumbbell Press: 1×16 (slow negatives)
High Cable Curl: 3×12
Triceps Kickback: 3×12
In conclusion, there are several types and methodologies that benefit each distinct type of discipline of training whether that is sports, cross fit, swimming, football, weight training, or bodybuilding. Through the balances set forth in the draw in phase, collectively we will determine the best course and outcome dictated by both the short and long term goals identified.